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Philosophy

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Jahnell Harrison

21. That [the moons of Jupiter] revolve in unequal circles is manifestly deduced from the fact that at the longest elongation from Jupiter it is never possible to see two of these moons in conjunction, whereas in the vicinity of Jupiter they are found united two, three, and sometimes all four together.  (Deductive argument; Causal inference)

22. Lenses function by refracting light at their surfaces. Consequently, their action depends not only on the shape of the lens surface, but also on the indices of refraction of the lens material and the surrounding medium. (Deductive; argument from definition)

23. Given present growth rates in undeveloped countries, the limited practice of  birth control , and the difficulty of slowing the current growth momentum, it can be said with virtual certainty that none of the people now reading this book will ever live in a world where the population is not growing. (Inductive argument; prediction)

24.  The interpretation of the laws is the proper and peculiar province of the courts. A constitution is, in fact, and must be regarded by the judges, as a functional law. It therefore belongs to them to ascertain its meaning, as well as meaning of any particular act proceeding from the legislative body. (Deductive argument; argument from definition)

25. The Simpson incident had shown me that a dog was kept in the stables, and yet, though someone had been in and had fetch out a horse, he had not barked enough to arouse the two lads in the loft. Obviously the midnight visitor was someone whom the dog knew well. (Inductive; casual inference)

26. Eternity is simultaneously whole. But time has a before and after. Therefore time and eternity are not the samething. (Deductive)

27. Ordinary things that we encounter every day are electrically neutral. Therefore, since negatively charged electrons are a part of everything, positively charged particles must also exist in all matter. (Deductive conclusion is certain & follows premises/ definition)

28. Animals that live on plants must eat large quantities of vegetation, and this consumes much of their time. Meat eaters, by contrast, have no need to eat so much or so often. Consequently, meat eating hominines [early human] many have had more leisure time available to explore and manipulate their environment; like lions and leopards, they would have time to spend lying around and playing. (Inductive; casual inference)

29. We tell people not to speed, but equip cars with air bags in case they do. So what’s wrong with telling kids to have sex, but making plan B available in case they do? (Inductive argument; analogy)  

30. Because the moon moves relative to the earth so that it returns to the same position overhead after about 25 hours, there are two high and two low tides at any point every 25 hours. (Deductive; argument from definition)

Define the following terms:

Deductive argument is an argument incorporating the claim that it is impossible for the conclusion to be false given that premises are true.

Inductive argument is an argument incorporating the claim that is improbable that the conclusion is false given that the premises are true.

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